This chapter focuses on the principles of safe blood transfusion practices. The aim of this chapter is to develop and support the knowledge of health-care professionals involved in prescribing and administering blood components and products.
Pre-transfusion testing refers to the laboratory testing required to ensure compatibility between the blood of the transfusion recipient and the blood product intended for transfusion. This process includes proper completion of the requisition, proper patient identification, collection and labelling of the blood sample from the patient, laboratory testing to determine the patient’s blood group and to identify the presence of red blood cell alloantibodies, and compatibility testing. Pre-transfusion testing is completed when a compatible blood product is identified for transfusion to the intended recipient. This chapter provides an overview of the pre-transfusion tests that are routinely performed.
Originally all plasma fractionation products were derived from pooled human plasma. Increasingly, many plasma proteins are manufactured by biotechnology as recombinant proteins, without need of donated plasma; depending on the particular plasma protein product, a recombinant or a fractionated product or both are available in Canada.
This Chapter presents in general terms the various methods and principles by which plasma protein products are manufactured for use in patients. It is complemented by Chapter 3, 4, 5 and 6 of this Guide.
All blood transfused in Canada is collected from volunteer donors. To ensure the safety of the blood products, donors are carefully screened against an extended list of eligibility criteria and their donated blood products are tested for transfusion-transmissible diseases. Donor eligibility criteria also reduce potential health risks for the donor. This chapter describes the donor selection process, the pathogen testing done on blood products, and the pathogen inactivation processes that can further reduce the potential risk of transfusion-transmitted diseases.
This chapter describes the manufacturing process for the most commonly prepared blood products: Red Blood Cells, Pooled Platelets, Frozen Plasma (FP), Apheresis Fresh Frozen Plasma (AFFP), Cryosupernatant Plasma (CSP) and Cryoprecipitate. A brief description of the indications, contraindications, storage and transportation requirements, dose, administration and available alternatives is included in the sections below. Further information may be found in other chapters of this Guide as indicated within the different sections.
Launched in June 2012, the National Organ Waitlist (NOW) provides 24/7 web-based access for non-renal organ transplant programs across the country to list patients in need of a heart, lungs, liver, pancreas, small bowel, or multi-organ transplant. When organs become available, Organ Donation Organizations (ODOs) can access NOW online from the Canadian Transplant Registry (CTR). ODOs use NOW as a first step in the organ allocation process to identify patients in most critical need of an organ anywhere in Canada.